home Home
Hong Kong Fishnet Endangered Species Animal Welfare and Control
* Mangrove Main Menu



Mangroves refer to a distinctive habitat which is usually found in upper intertidal regions of estuaries in sheltered tropical and subtropical shores, receiving inputs from regular tidal flushing and from freshwater streams and rivers. 

Mangrove plants can be classified into two types: true mangroves and associate mangroves. True mangroves have developed at least one or more specialised physiological or morphological adaptations in order to survive in such stressful environment. Associate mangrove is a group of plants growing between mangrove plants and the land but seldom immersed by normal tides.   
The habitats of mangrove are characterised by: 

- High temperature
- Fluctuating salinity
- Alternating aerobic and anaerobic conditions
- Periodic wet and dry environments
- Unstable and soft substratum

The Ting Kok mangrove in Tolo Harbour, a hard bottom mangal in more oceanic waters, has an area of 8.77 hectares. This mangrove is the fourth largest among 44 mangal stands in Hong Kong and is also the largest one along the rest of Hong Kong’s coastline, supporting high biodiversity of flora and fauna. Six out of eight true mangrove plant species can be found in Ting Kok. Associate mangroves such as Clerodendrum inerme and Hibiscus tiliaceus are very common there.  
Other plant species such as Pandanus tectorius, Suaeda australis, and Limonium sinense can also be found in this stand. 
The mangrove ecosystem is one of the most important ecological habitats in Hong Kong. The detritus, which is mainly fallen leaves, provides food for numerous marine lives. The high productivity of mangrove wetlands offers shelters, breeding and nursery grounds for marine fauna such as juvenile fish, crabs, shrimps, mollusks, seahorses and starfish, etc. 
True Mangrove

 Kandelia obovata
   Kandelia obovata - Flowers 

Kandelia obovata - Fruit
Bruguiera gymnorrhiza 

Bruguiera gymnorrhiza - Flowers
  Bruguiera gymnorrhiza - Fruits

Excoecaria agallocha
Excoecaria agallocha - Flowers
Excoecaria agallocha - Fruits  
Lumnitzera racemosa

Lumnitzera racemosa
- Flowers & Fruits
Aegiceras corniculatum

Aegiceras corniculatum - Flowers
Aegiceras corniculatum - Fruits 

Avicennia marina  
  Avicennia marina - Fruits 

Associate Mangrove  

Hibiscus tiliaceus - Flower
Hibiscus tiliaceus - Leaves
Hibiscus tiliaceus - Fruits  
Clerodendrum inerme

Other Plants

         Pandanus tectorius           
  Suaeda australis  
        Limonium sinense           

Poaceae Plant
   Sesuvium portulacastrum  
Colpomenia sinuosa

Ulva intestinalis
  Back to Top


Infauna, bivalves, worms and other burrowing crabs are commonly found in mangrove habitats in Ting Kok.   
In addition, crabs, worms and countless small invertebrates on mudflat attract a number of bird species such as Little Egret (Egretta garzetta) and Black Kite (Milvus migrans) foraging on the mudflat.  Birdies with the natural environment as a background, they constitute a wonderful scene in Ting Kok. 

Egretta garzetta      

Egretta alba

Milvus migrans
 Copsychus saularis 


Back  Back to Top
Last Review Date : 02 February 2015