2019/06/14
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Mangrove

Habitat
Organisms 
  
  

Habitat

Mangroves refer to a distinctive habitat which is usually found in upper intertidal regions of estuaries in sheltered tropical and subtropical shores, receiving inputs from regular tidal flushing and from freshwater streams and rivers. 
 

 
 
Mangrove plants can be classified into two types: true mangroves and mangrove associates. True mangroves have developed at least one or more specialised physiological or morphological adaptations in order to survive in such stressful environment. Mangrove associates is a group of plants growing between mangrove plants and the land but seldom immersed by normal tides.   
    
 
The habitats of mangrove are characterised by: 

- High temperature
 
- Fluctuating salinity
 
- Alternating aerobic and anaerobic conditions
 
- Periodic wet and dry environments
 
- Unstable and soft substratum
 

The Ting Kok mangrove in Tolo Harbour, a hard bottom mangal in more oceanic waters, has an area of 8.77 hectares. This mangrove is the fourth largest among 44 mangal stands in Hong Kong and is also the largest one along the rest of Hong Kong’s coastline, supporting high biodiversity of flora and fauna. Six out of eight true mangrove plant species can be found in Ting Kok. Mangrove associates such as Clerodendrum inerme and Talipariti tiliaceum are very common there.  
 
Other plant species such as Pandanus tectorius, Suaeda australis, and Limonium sinense can also be found in this stand. 
 
The mangrove ecosystem is one of the most important ecological habitats in Hong Kong. The detritus, which is mainly fallen leaves, provides food for numerous marine lives. The high productivity of mangrove wetlands offers shelters, breeding and nursery grounds for marine fauna such as juvenile fish, crabs, shrimps, mollusks, seahorses and starfish, etc. 
 
 
True Mangrove

 Kandelia obovata

 

 Kandelia obovata - Flowers

     

Kandelia obovata - Fruit

 

Bruguiera gymnorrhiza

     

Bruguiera gymnorrhiza - Flowers

 

Bruguiera gymnorrhiza - Fruits

     

Excoecaria agallocha

 

Excoecaria agallocha - Flowers

     

Excoecaria agallocha

- Fruits
 

Lumnitzera racemosa

     

Lumnitzera racemosa

- Flowers & Fruits
 

Aegiceras corniculatum

     

Aegiceras corniculatum - Flowers

 

Aegiceras corniculatum - Fruits

     

Avicennia marina 

 

Avicennia marina - Fruits 
  


Mangrove Associates

 



Talipariti tiliaceum
- Flower
 

Talipariti tiliaceum - Leaves

     

Talipariti tiliaceum - Fruits

 

Clerodendrum inerme


Other Plants

         Pandanus tectorius           

 

Suaeda australis

 

        Limonium sinense           

         


Poaceae Plant
 

 Sesuvium portulacastrum

 

Colpomenia sinuosa

         

Ulva intestinalis

       
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Organisms

Infauna, bivalves, worms and other burrowing crabs are commonly found in mangrove habitats in Ting Kok.   
 
In addition, crabs, worms and countless small invertebrates on mudflat attract a number of bird species such as Little Egret (Egretta garzetta) and Black Kite (Milvus migrans) foraging on the mudflat.  Birdies with the natural environment as a background, they constitute a wonderful scene in Ting Kok. 
 

Egretta garzetta      

 

Ardea alba

    

Milvus migrans

 

 Copsychus saularis