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CITES = "Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora"

In order to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) was first signed in 1973 and entered into force in 1975 to regulate the import and export of endangered species through a permit system. As of 2023, it has over 180 Parties.

Endangered Species

Depending on the degree of threat posed by international trade, CITES classifies over 40,000 endangered species of animals and plants into three Appendices.

Appendix I includes over 1,000 species threatened with extinction. Commercial trade in specimens of these species is prohibited. Appendix I captive-bred animals from CITES registered operations and artificially propagated plants bred/propagated for commercial purposes are treated as Appendix II specimens.
Appendix II lists over 39,000 species which are not necessarily threatened with extinction but may become so unless trade is controlled. Their trade is allowed but subject to licensing controls.
Appendix III species are species identified by any Party to CITES as requiring cooperation in controlling their trade. Their trade is subject to permits or certificates of origin.
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